Saturday, June 20, 2020

SAT Word Fun Part I

So†¦ I’m at home. It’s Monday night. School’s out and guess what I’m doing? You guessed it! Studying SAT words. And how old am I? Fourteen. Fresh out of eighth grade and a new freshman! A bit young huh? Well, I agree. But if I wasn’t studying the SAT vocab words right now, I wouldn’t be writing this. And you wouldn’t be reading this! And that means you all would be bored with nothing to do. Now on with the story. I come to the word â€Å"abbreviate† which means: to shorten or condense by omitting letters or words. The word omitting brings to my mind the word vomiting and vomiting omits stuff from your body! What a connection. Now, the example in the handy book I’m using is: These days, not many people know that R.S.V.P was originally used to abbreviate the French phrase â€Å"repondez s’il vous plait,† meaning, â€Å"please reply†. Very interesting right? So I also came up wit h an example: Nowadays, EVERYONE knows that ASAP is currently used to abbreviate the commonly used American phrase â€Å"as soon as possible,† which is used frequently when someone is in a hurry! My lame attempt at a joke. I hope you all got the joke. Moving on the word number dos (Spanish for two)! The word is aberrant. Hmmm†¦ Can you guess what that means? Well, if you guessed: Unusual for accepted or expected norms, then you are right! The example sentence is: The girl knew her brother wanted something because of his aberrant friendly behavior. I totally agree with the girl. If your brother is being nice, make sure you don’t fall into the trap. Dun dun dun†¦ And now for my sentence: Everyone knows that something went wrong with the popular girls’ plans because of their aberrant super angry demeanor (usually they were just mean, but now, they are plain evil). Okay†¦ I think I know this word now! The next word is â€Å"abet† which means: to help commit a crime. Awesome, a slightly creepy one! The book’s example is: She was shocked to learn that by simply driving him to the airport, she had abetted in the commission of a crime. Wow that’s a girl kept in the dark†¦ So my sentence is: She handed him the gun, shaking inside, knowing that if her boyfriend was caught, she would be guilty too, since she would have abetted in the commission of a murder. I’m a dark person at times. I can write very scary stories. Beware†¦. Down the line to word number four! Abeyance, a temporary halt to an activity or a short suspension. I wonder if this applies to schools? Like when you get suspended from school†¦ I don’t know†¦ The example, you ask? Well here it is! The presentation was in abeyance until the technical problem could be resolved. Now, this was a harder one for my own example, but in the end, I came up with: After Melanie slipped into a coma, it seemed as though everyone’s lives were in abeyance, frozen in time, waiting for their Queen to awaken. So, pretty good huh? It was an interesting sentence wasn’t it? Well, this concludes Part One of the SAT Word Fun! Please check back soon for Part Two!!!!

Tuesday, May 26, 2020

How to Get Professional Research Paper Help

How to Get Professional Research Paper HelpWhen you have already written a draft of your work and want to get professional research paper help, you may want to seek out a professional writing service to help you in your writing endeavors. A writer that is experienced with professional research papers can make the necessary edits to help you land on the top of the pile when it comes to your own writing, as well as being able to put together a well-written essay for submission.You can certainly get a lot of help when it comes to your own writing. There are numerous ways in which you can learn from a professional research paper help service. As well, a professional service can help you figure out all of the proper formats for submitting your work and ensure that your work meets the right standards to be acceptable for publishing.The first thing that you should do when you begin writing is to decide how many people will be reading your essay. It may not be necessary to have everyone go t hrough your work because this is often only for students, but a lot of students are good writers. If you are to have other readers, you must be ready to write a work that your audience will appreciate. Also, do not feel compelled to write in such a way that you forget to highlight certain points.Professional research paper help will also help you keep your research organized. If you were to write the research paper yourself, you would not get around to putting everything together at the end of the day. A professional service will also help you to brainstorm ideas, create an outline, and generally take your writing down into a format that you will be happy with. This will also keep you from wondering about how to solve a problem or how to address something in the middle of writing a part.The process of writing a research paper, essay, report, etc. is a very involved one that can take time. A professional service can be extremely helpful in the process of preparing for it and ensuring that you are prepared.If you are going to utilize a professional service, you will be able to determine if the company is familiar with the types of research paper that you will need to write. Some research papers will not require a particular style, but some may have specific requirements for writing such as a specific keyword requirement. Therefore, you should know as much as possible about the research paper that you are going to write so that you can maximize your chances of success.When you are looking for research paper help, you may want to consider consulting a service that has worked on several writing projects and ensures that they are professionally trained. Many times, these writers will ask you for a proposal for your research project and they will then edit your proposal before submitting it to their client. You can rest assured that the research paper that you ultimately submit will be well-written and contain strong arguments that support your arguments.

Monday, May 18, 2020

The United States s Financial System - 1700 Words

In the most basic definitions of economics, the United States’s Financial system is broken down into approximately five groups: the households, the firms, the market for factors of production, the market of goods and services, and the government. Within these groups, there is a constant flow that progresses in a circle through all of these groups in order to keep the economy running smoothly. This system is based on the notion that both consumers and producers need to come together to transact. However, buyers don’t always have the money they need to buy supplies, and sellers don’t always have the money to produce products or provide services. When this occurs, it is important for both investors and banks to offer aid in order to prevent†¦show more content†¦Banks would also help investors buy into companies, including letting people buy ownership in the banks. The whole idea was to allow money to flow through the economy based on economic principles o f supply and demand. If there is a demand for cars, for example, let’s help auto companies create a proper supply and help car buyers purchase the cars. The Banks would always take a percent of the transaction as their fee, and this is how the banks made their money. In the US, the role of the government was simply to make sure nobody was cheating, so that prices and transactions would be based on supply-and-demand, not tricks.  · Over time, banks began to shake their role of â€Å"middle-men† for transactions. Instead, they began packaging and selling an array of new Financial Assets that were considerably intricate. Straying from their traditional role of simply providing loans, they began selling their loans to other banks and financial institutions. Investments banks would also allow people to â€Å"make bets† on the future and buy such bets if there was someone else who would bet on the other side. Along with all these new-found policies, they began to combine investment packages in an attempt to lower the risks of borrowers not paying back what they were lent. In the past, the Government was very strict on whichShow MoreRelatedHealthcare Between Canada And The United States1240 Words   |  5 Pageshealthcare status between Canada and the United States. Canada and the United States have a totally different healthcare system. Many people argued that the United States healthcare system needs some upgrading, while, some people admire Canada’s healthcare system due to the fact that Canada’s healthcare does more for less. Research has shown that Canada spends less of its’ GDP on it’s healthcare yet performs better than the United States. Canada and the United States have quite a few differences in theirRead MoreThe Federal Reserve : The Central Bank Of The United States1526 Words   |  7 Pagesthe United States. The system was created on December 1913 during the reign of President Woodrow Wilson. It was during this time that President Woodrow signed the Federal Reserve Act, incorporating it into the law. The Congress was behind the creation of the Federal Reserve with the ultimate goal of making it safer and more reliable to keep the money. The Congress was also compelled to establishing a more flexible financial system during this time. Its management is based on the federal system, thatRead MoreThe Difference Between Unites States Healthcare Systems and the Healthcare Systems in Sweden866 Words   |  4 PagesThe difference between Unites States healthcare systems and the healthcare systems in Sweden Noranda Brown Kaplan University The difference between healthcare systems in the United States and the healthcare systems in Sweden. Healthcare systems vary in many different developing countries, causing various types of governmental issues regarding the care of unhealthy citizens in an unstable environment. The healthcare of Sweden and the United States (U.S.) will be addressed and differentiatedRead MoreThe Great Recession And The Housing Crisis1600 Words   |  7 Pagesconditions in those specific areas related to them or demonstrate the housing behavior in overall United States. THE GREAT RECESSION The financial crisis that began in August 2007 has been the most severe of the post-World War II era and, possibly--once one takes into account the global scope of the crisis, its broad effects on a range of markets and institutions, and the number of systemically critical financial institutions that failed or came close to failure--the worst in modern history. Although forcefulRead MoreInternational Monetary Fund ( Imf ), World Trade Organization ( Wto ) And World Bank934 Words   |  4 Pagesand World Bank. These organizations in their own right are trying to improve the economy by facilitating internationals trading (IMF) , reducing poverty around the world (IMF), ensuring that trading flows smoothly and freely (WTO) and providing financial advice to assist in economic advancement (World Bank). Countries that are members of the IMF, WTO and World Bank, in my opinion believe that working together , following the organizations guidelines, can improve the economy. Belgium works w ithRead MoreShuhao Liu. Money And Banking. Dr. Sue Lynn Sasser. February1231 Words   |  5 Pages1863, the United States passed the National Bank Act, trying to provide a national constitution that would cover all banks. This Act stipulates that 25% is the statutory reserve ratio of bank deposits. In 1863, Lincoln needed more green money to win the war. So he made an important compromise, signed the 1863 national banking act. The act authorizes the government to approve the issuance of uniform bank notes by the state bank, which will issue the national currency of the United states. It is vitalRead MoreAggregate Expenditure And Output Of The Short Run Essay1563 Words   |  7 Pagesbanks, and the Federal Reserve System The central bank of a country serves as banker for the rest of the banks and for the government. In the United States, the Federal Reserve System (Fed) is the central bank of the country. It is the body responsible for issuing money, regulating monetary policy and supervising the operation of the banking system. To fulfill its mission, the Fed functions as a bank for banks and as the government bank, serving as a regulator of financial institutions and as the administratorRead MoreLessons Of Resilience : What We Can Learn From The Subprime Mortgage Crisis Essay1499 Words   |  6 PagesLessons in Resilience: What We Can Learn from the Subprime Mortgage Crisis Like all financial markets, the United States housing market is characterized by its cyclical nature. Markets have ups and downs, peaks and troughs, and without variation, the housing market would not contribute to economic activity in the way that it does. Still, while fluctuations are a necessary and often beneficial truth, housing disasters and market crashes are crises that should and can be avoided with proper foresightRead MoreWorld Social Policies And Health Care Policy And Inequality Policy1460 Words   |  6 PagesWorld Social Policies The advantages and disadvantages of resources and services within United States compared to other govern countries and their social demands for their citizens are immeasurably different. When comparing and analyzing how governing bodies oversees the well-being of citizens within their region of the world, it is important not to rely on their economic growth only. But, how their social policies and guidelines address poverty, housing, health care, unemployment, and the lack ofRead MoreThe Decline Of The United States964 Words   |  4 Pages(Dezhao, 2006) back in the 1930s during the capitalist world s great economic depression. The second fall took place in the 1970s and 80s, the time which the international competitiveness of U.S. commodities and capital decreased significantly. The third decline occurred late 2000 , the recent financial crisis 2008/9. The reasons and results of the three falls are very different. Following the first two declines, the United States made efforts to alleviate the declines through reform and innovation

Saturday, May 16, 2020

A Short Story Of Giaus - 1028 Words

Merlin sat in a tree just outside of camp giggling maniacally. They were still inside the protective barrier that Tauren and Diana always set up but that kind of barrier never kept out any of her friends, it just wasnt strong enough. Merlin clapped along to the music being played on pan pipes by a young green skinned faun. Two centaurs, one male one female pranced through the clearing in time with the music. Merlin loved these times, times when she could get away from Taurens lessons and Dianas fussing and her parents knowing and worried looks. She knew who she was, shed know the truth, her destiny for a while now but she wasnt quite sure what that meant. Bringing balance to magic could mean any number of things. It had meant killing†¦show more content†¦The glow circled the clearing once before it spotted her and flew up to the tree she was sitting in. Merlin held out her hands and the fairy landed in them looking grateful of the place to rest. She had brown skin, the color of tree bark and wore a dress made from leaves but her wings were those of a monarch butterfly. Her hair matched them, a fiery orange that faded to black at the tips. Mona! How are you? Its been ages! Mona shook her head at Merlin. No time for that now little hawk! You must warn your people, the great dragon has finally escaped his binding and is wreaking havoc on Camelot. We dont know how far he may go to seek his vengeance. Merlin nodded and leapt out of the tree, her deep blue eyes flashing a brilliant gold as she floated down to the forest floor without injury. As soon as her feet touched ground she was off like a shot racing through the forest back to the camp, Mona clinging to her hair as the trees blurred past them. They arrived in minutes and Merlin found Tauren swiftly racing into his tent with barely a knock on one of the posts to let him know he had company. He looked up from his book and raised an eyebrow. Yes young Emrys? Tauren only ever called her Merlin when her parents were around or when there were strangers in the camp which almost never happened and even then they were usually other druids who knew she was Emrys anyway. Sorry to interrupt Tauren. Mona just told me that the great

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Communication And Conflicts Barrier When Dealing Or...

1. I learned that I have challenge and overcome the frustrate of communication and conflicts barrier when dealing or approaching with supervisors and co-workers. As likewise of my responsibility as a mentor is to help the mentoree’s need to overcome their obstacles which he/she circulate among their peers 2. I have discovered that I need to practice more of active listening on how the technique is to paraphrase our understanding of what the person being said by transposing it and putting it into our own words than asking for verification. This is the good solution for me to listen, and to be sensitives toward other mentoree who need to understand why sign language is very important to communicate with deaf people. I encourage them to if†¦show more content†¦For instance, about this course evolve the concepts of the staff development and evaluation practices that emphasize staff learning and reflection. It makes me feel that I was missing something of their knowledge gained through their experience with children, teacher, and supervisor every day in the workplace. In solution for advice for a mentor in teaching behavior that required building a teamwork when approaching in communication or conflict strategies. I do believe as a mentor must give a â€Å"broaden and build mod el† format of positive emotions to help mentoree to solve problems and support interpersonal relationships and to find positive meaning in ordinary events, by giving expression appreciate for a job well-done. B. Five most Important behaviors a mentor need and why you feel these are the most important. Effective Mentors 1. In my respective, while mentoring is listening and believing that the mentee can achieve their goal by allowing me to show them my positive roles, responsibility and learning skills than given greatly increased on how much learning can improved their independently toward different people, styles, and culture setting. So they can accomplish their better learning development and social approaches 2. Provide Network and Resourceful: I would provide the mentoree a better network and resourceful guiding along with employee’s handbook; the mission philosophy with aShow MoreRelatedQualitative Research Methods Essay13327 Words   |  54 Pagesqualitative research methods: case study, ethnography, phenomenology, grounded theory, and narrative research. These methods allow researchers to gather an in-depth understanding of social and cultural phenomena using inquiry tactics to determine the why, when, where, what, and how of the study. The qualitative inquiry is subject to the participant’s interpretations of the occurrences through observation and in-depth interviews. The purpose of this paper is to compare and contrast three of the five qualitativeRead MoreMGT1FOM Key Management Theorists26579 Words   |  107 Pagesapproach to the study of operations. The observer prepared a list of questions about the materials used, normal waste, expenses, tools, prices, the final market, workers, their wages, skill required, length of work cycle, and so on. In essence it was the same procedure that an operations analyst or a consultant would use in approaching an assignment. 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Texas Government Essay - 983 Words

The government of the state of Texas is a difficult and complicated institution that is composed of many different levels. The question comes in to everyones mind at one time or another whether or not to trust the government. It could be that people believe that the officials will take advantage of their power, or simply people dont like the idea of being controlled by someone who is not a family member or friend. To avoid this centralized power, the government is divided into stages and this is a reasonable ground for trusting the government. Government runs this state and it does deserve to be trusted. Our government here in Texas has three major parts that play a significant part in our decision making process. These levels†¦show more content†¦If issues are brought about, or arguments are carried out, then the Conference Committees are there to resolve these differences. The most common Governmental figure in Texas is the Governor. This power is nothing more than that of a celebrity status. Although the Governor has the power to appoint independent boards and commissions, the senate has to confirm these appointments. This is called senatorial courtesy What is meant when this job is more like a celebrity is because of the Governor‘s ceremonial roles as acting as Chief of State. This increases the Governor‘s popularity and prestige, and broadens the image of the office. One important power or role that the Governor is responsible for is coordinating relations between Texas and other states. This can definitely be an important factor. For example, the need of federal aid during the time of an emergency can require the help of other states. The Governor also acts as the Chief Budget officer of the state. Even though the presiding officer presides over this office, the Governor does have some control. This is a very effective example of a good trustworthy system. 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When Can You Trust Your Gut free essay sample

Nobel laureate Daniel Kahneman and psychologist Gary Klein debate the power and perils of intuition for senior executives. For two scholars representing opposing schools of thought, Daniel Kahneman and Gary Klein find a surprising amount of common ground. Kahneman, a psychologist, won the Nobel Prize in economics in 2002 for prospect theory, which helps explain the sometimes counterintuitive choices people make under uncertainty. Klein, a senior scientist at MacroCognition, has focused on the power of intuition to support good decision making in high-pressure environments, such as firefighting and intensive-care units. In a September 2009 American Psychology article titled â€Å"Conditions for intuitive expertise: A failure to disagree,† Kahneman and Klein debated the circumstances in which intuition would yield good decision making. In this interview with Olivier Sibony, a director in McKinsey’s Brussels office, and Dan Lovallo, a professor at the University of Sydney and an adviser to McKinsey, Kahneman and Klein explore the power and perils of intuition for senior executives. 3 March 2010 â€Å" My general view would be that you should not take your intuitions at face value; overconfidence is a powerful source of illusions Daniel Kahneman is a Nobel laureate and a professor emeritus of psychology and public affairs at Princeton University’s Woodrow Wilson School. He is also a fellow at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem and a Gallup senior scientist. † The Quarterly: In your recent American Psychology article, you asked a question that should be interesting to just about all executives: â€Å"Under what conditions are the intuitions of professionals worthy of trust? † What’s your answer? When can executives trust their guts? Gary Klein: It depends on what you mean by â€Å"trust. † If you mean, â€Å"My gut feeling is telling me this; therefore I can act on it and I don’t have to worry,† we say you should never trust your gut. You need to take your gut feeling as an important data point, but then you have to consciously and deliberately evaluate it, to see if it makes sense in this context. You need strategies that help rule things out. That’s the opposite of saying, â€Å"This is what my gut is telling me; let me gather information to confirm it. † Daniel Kahneman: There are some conditions where you have to trust your intuition. When you are under time pressure for a decision, you need to follow intuition. My general view, though, would be that you should not take your intuitions at face value. Overconfidence is a powerful source of illusions, primarily determined by the quality Strategic decisions: When can you trust your gut? 4 and coherence of the story that you can construct, not by its validity. If people can construct a simple and coherent story, they will feel confident regardless of how well grounded it is in reality. The Quarterly: Is intuition more reliable under certain conditions? Gary Klein: We identified two. First, there needs to be a certain structure to a situation, a certain predictability that allows you to have a basis for the intuition. If a situation is very, very turbulent, we say it has low validity, and there’s no basis for intuition. For example, you shouldn’t trust the judgments of stock brokers picking individual stocks. The second factor is whether decision makers have a chance to get feedback on their judgments, so that they can strengthen them and gain expertise. If those criteria aren’t met, then intuitions aren’t going to be trustworthy. Most corporate decisions aren’t going to meet the test of high validity. But they’re going to be way above the low-validity situations that we worry about. Many business intuitions and expertise are going to be valuable; they are telling you something useful, and you want to take advantage of them. Daniel Kahneman: This is an area of difference between Gary and me. I would be wary of experts’ intuition, except when they deal with something that they have dealt with a lot in the past. Surgeons, for example, do many operations of a given kind, and they learn what â€Å" Many business intuitions and expertise are going to be valuable; they are telling you something useful, and you want to take advantage of them † Gary Klein is a cognitive psychologist and senior scientist at MacroCognition. He is the author of Sources of Power: How People Make Decisions, The Power of Intuition, and Streetlights and Shadows: Searching for the Keys to Adaptive Decision Making. 5 March 2010 problems they’re going to encounter. But when problems are unique, or fairly unique, then I would be less trusting of intuition than Gary is. One of the problems with expertise is that people have it in some domains and not in others. So experts don’t know exactly where the boundaries of their expertise are. The Quarterly: Many executives would argue that major strategic decisions, such as market entry, MA, or RD investments, take place in environments where their experience counts—what you might call high-validity environments. Are they right? Gary Klein: None of those really involve high-validity environments, but there’s enough structure for xecutives to listen to their intuitions. I’d like to see a mental simulation that involves looking at ways each of the options could play out or imagining ways that they could go sour, as well as discovering why people are excited about them. Daniel Kahneman: In strategic decisions, I’d be really concerned about overconfidence. There are often e ntire aspects of the problem that you can’t see—for example, am I ignoring what competitors might do? An executive might have a very strong intuition that a given product has promise, without considering the probability that a rival is already ahead in developing the same product. I’d add that the amount of success it takes for leaders to become overconfident isn’t terribly large. Some achieve a reputation for great successes when in fact all they have done is take chances that reasonable people wouldn’t take. Gary Klein: Danny and I are in agreement that by the time executives get to high levels, they are good at making others feel confident in their judgment, even if there’s no strong basis for the judgment. The Quarterly: So you would argue that selection processes for leaders tend to favor lucky risk takers rather than the wise? Daniel Kahneman: No question—if there’s a bias, it’s in that direction. Beyond that, lucky risk takers use hindsight to reinforce their feeling that their gut is very wise. Hindsight also reinforces others’ trust in that individual’s gut. That’s one of the real dangers of leader selection in many organizations: leaders are selected for overconfidence. We associate leadership with decisiveness. That perception of leadership pushes people to make decisions fairly quickly, lest they be seen as dithering and indecisive. Gary Klein: I agree. Society’s epitome of credibility is John Wayne, who sizes up a situation and says, â€Å"Here’s what I’m going to do†Ã¢â‚¬â€ and you follow him. We both worry about leaders in complex situations Strategic decisions: When can you trust your gut? 6 Overconfidence in action? Does management admit mistakes and kill unsuccessful initiatives in a timely manner? C-level execs Yes Non-C-level1 80% No Yes 49% No 20% 52% 1Figures do not sum to 100%, because of rounding. Source: December 2009 survey of 463 executive readers of the McKinsey Quarterly Executives responded to the survey after reading â€Å"Competing through organizational agility,† by London Business School professor Don Sull, on mckinseyquarterly. com. ho don’t have enough experience, who are just going with their intuition and not monitoring it, not thinking about it. Daniel Kahneman: There’s a cost to not being John Wayne, since there really is a strong expectation that leaders will be decisive and act quickly. We deeply want to be led by people who know what they’re doing and who don’t have to think about it too much. The Quarterly: W ho would be your poster child for the â€Å"non–John Wayne† type of leader? Gary Klein: I met a lieutenant general in Iraq who told me a marvelous story about his first year there. He kept learning things he didn’t know. He did that by continuously challenging his assumptions when he realized he was wrong. At the end of the year, he had a completely different view of how to do things, and he didn’t lose credibility. Another example I would offer is Lou Gerstner when he went to IBM. He entered an industry that he didn’t understand. He didn’t pretend to understand the nuances, but he was seen as intelligent and open minded, and he gained trust very quickly. 7 March 2010 The Quarterly: A moment ago, Gary, you talked about imagining ways a decision could go sour. That sounds reminiscent of your â€Å"premortem† technique. Could you please say a little more about that? Gary Klein: The premortem technique is a sneaky way to get people to do contrarian, devil’s advocate thinking without encountering resistance. If a project goes poorly, there will be a lessons-learned session that looks at what went wrong and why the project failed—like a medical postmortem. Why don’t we do that up front? Before a project starts, we should say, â€Å"We’re looking in a crystal ball, and this project has failed; it’s a fiasco. Now, everybody, take two minutes and write down all the reasons why you think the project failed. The logic is that instead of showing people that you are smart because you can come up with a good plan, you show you’re smart by thinking of insightful reasons why this project might go south. If you make it part of your corporate culture, then you create an interesting competition: â€Å"I want to come up with some possible problem that other people havenâ⠂¬â„¢t even thought of. † The whole dynamic changes from trying to avoid anything that might disrupt harmony to trying to surface potential problems. Daniel Kahneman: The premortem is a great idea. I mentioned it at Davos—giving full credit to Gary—and the chairman of a large corporation said it was worth coming to Davos for. The beauty of the premortem is that it is very easy to do. My guess is that, in general, doing a premortem on a plan that is about to be adopted won’t cause it to be abandoned. But it will probably be tweaked in ways that everybody will recognize as beneficial. So the premortem is a low-cost, high-payoff kind of thing. The Quarterly: It sounds like you agree on the benefits of the premortem and in your thinking about leadership. Where don’t you see eye to eye? Daniel Kahneman: I like checklists as a solution; Gary doesn’t. Gary Klein: I’m not an opponent of checklists for high-validity environments with repetitive tasks. I don’t want my pilot forgetting to fill out the pretakeoff checklist! But I’m less enthusiastic about checklists when you move into environments that are more complex and ambiguous, because that’s where you need expertise. Checklists are about if/then statements. The checklist tells you the â€Å"then† but you need expertise to determine the â€Å"if†Ã¢â‚¬â€has the condition been satisfied? In a dynamic, ambiguous environment, this requires judgment, and it’s hard to put that into checklists. Strategic decisions: When can you trust your gut? 8 Daniel Kahneman: I disagree. In situations where you don’t have high validity, that’s where you need checklists the most. The checklist doesn’t guarantee that you won’t make errors when the situation is uncertain. But it may prevent you from being overconfident. I view that as a good thing. The problem is that people don’t really like checklists; there’s resistance to them. So you have to turn them into a standard operating procedure—for example, at the stage of due diligence, when board members go through a checklist before they approve a decision. A checklist like that would be about process, not content. I don’t think you can have checklists and quality control all over the place, but in a few strategic environments, I think they are worth trying. The Quarterly: What should be on a checklist when an executive is making an important strategic decision? Daniel Kahneman: I would ask about the quality and independence of information. Is it coming from multiple sources or just one source that’s being regurgitated in different ways? Is there a possibility of groupthink? Does the leader have an opinion that seems to be influencing others? I would ask where every number comes from and would try to postpone the achievement of group consensus. Fragmenting problems and keeping judgments independent helps decorrelate errors of judgment. The Quarterly: Could you explain what you mean by â€Å"correlated errors†? Daniel Kahneman: Sure. There’s a classic experiment where you ask people to estimate how many coins there are in a transparent jar. When people do that independently, the accuracy of the judgment rises with the number of estimates, when they are averaged. But if people hear each other make estimates, the first one influences the second, which influences the third, and so on. That’s what I call a correlated error. Frankly, I’m surprised that when you have a reasonably well-informed group—say, they have read all the background materials—that it isn’t more common to begin by having everyone write their conclusions on a slip of paper. If you don’t do that, the discussion will create an enormous amount of conformity that reduces the quality of the judgment. The Quarterly: Beyond checklists, do you disagree in other important ways? 9 March 2010 Gary Klein: Danny and I aren’t lined up on whether there’s more to be gained by listening to intuitions or by stifling them until you have a chance to get all the information. Performance depends on having important insights as well as avoiding errors. But sometimes, I believe, the techniques you use to reduce the chance of error can get in the way of gaining insights. Daniel Kahneman: My advice would be to try to postpone intuition as much as possible. Take the example of an acquisition. Ultimately, you are going to end up with a number—what the target company will cost you. If you get to specific numbers too early, you will anchor on those numbers, and they’ll get much more weight than they actually deserve. You do as much homework as possible beforehand so that the intuition is as informed as it can be. The Quarterly: What is the best point in the decision process for an intervention that aims to eliminate bias? Daniel Kahneman: It’s when you decide what information needs to be collected. That’s an absolutely critical step. If you’re starting with a hypothesis and planning to collect information, make sure that the process is systematic and the information high quality. This should take place fairly early. Gary Klein: I don’t think executives are saying, â€Å"I have my hypothesis and I’m looking only for data that will support it. † I think the process is rather that people make quick judgments about what’s happening, which allows them to determine what information is relevant. Otherwise, they get into an information overload mode. Rather than seeking confirmation, they’re using the frames that come from their experience to guide their search. Of course, it’s easy for people to lose track of how much they’ve explained away. So one possibility is to try to surface this for them—to show them the list of things that they’ve explained away. Daniel Kahneman: I’d add that hypothesis testing can be completely contaminated if the organization knows the answer that the leader wants to get. You want to create the possibility that people can discover that an idea is a lousy one early in the game, before the whole machinery is committed to it. The Quarterly: How optimistic are you that individuals can debias themselves? Daniel Kahneman: I’m really not optimistic. Most decision makers will trust their own intuitions because they think they see the situation clearly. It’s a special exercise to question your own intuitions. Strategic decisions: When can you trust your gut? 10 I think that almost the only way to learn how to debias yourself is to learn to critique other people. I call that â€Å"educating gossip. † If we could elevate the gossip about decision making by introducing terms such as â€Å"anchoring,† from the study of errors, into the language of organizations, people could talk about other people’s mistakes in a more refined way. The Quarterly: Do you think corporate leaders want to generate that type of gossip? How do they typically react to your ideas? Daniel Kahneman: The reaction is always the same—they are very interested, but unless they invited you specifically because they wanted to do something, they don’t want to apply anything. Except for the premortem. People just love the premortem. The Quarterly: Why do you think leaders are hesitant to act on your ideas? Daniel Kahneman: That’s easy. Leaders know that any procedure they put in place is going to cause their judgment to be questioned. And whether they’re fully aware of it or not, they’re really not in the market to have their decisions and choices questioned. The Quarterly: Yet senior executives want to make good decisions. Do you have any final words of wisdom for them in that quest? Daniel Kahneman: My single piece of advice would be to improve the quality of meetings—that seems pretty strategic to improving the quality of decision making. People spend a lot of time in meetings. You want meetings to be short. People should have a lot of information, and you want to decorrelate errors. Gary Klein: What concerns me is the tendency to marginalize people who disagree with you at meetings. There’s too much intolerance for challenge. As a leader, you can say the right things—for instance, everybody should share their opinions. But people are too smart to do that, because it’s risky. So when people raise an idea that doesn’t make sense to you as a leader, rather than ask what’s wrong with them, you should be curious about why they’re taking the position. Curiosity is a counterforce for contempt when people are making unpopular statements. Copyright  © 2010 McKinsey Company. All rights reserved. We welcome your comments on this article. Please send them to [emailprotected] com.